To develop cutting edge design, it takes expertise, imagination and innovation. As the leader in maritime communication, Wireless Maritime Services has been successfully designing and deploying wireless networks at sea for over 15 years. The core of our success is the WMS Engineering team. WMS engineers design, build and innovate wireless maritime networks for today, tomorrow and the future.
Years ago, when people dreamed of a cruise vacation, the concept of using your personal mobile phone on a cruise ship was nothing more than a novel idea. When you think about it today, it is still an incredible technological triumph to be able to make a phone call or post a picture on your social media account in the middle of the ocean on a ship, but it is something we take for granted on a daily basis. It is a technological triumph because of the imagination, innovation and engineering that it takes to make this happen.
Cellular service at sea shares some similarities to cellular service on land. From a passenger perspective the service is almost identical, however, behind the scenes is where the similarities end. WMS engineers must imagine and adapt wireless technology built for a terrestrial environment to the maritime environment. When a passenger makes a call, sends a text message or uses data from their mobile device from a ship, the call, text or data session is connected to a customized network comprised of software platforms, hardware, satellites, antennae and miles of cable that is designed specifically for that vessel. From the ship at sea, the call, text or data session is then routed to a satellite link orbiting in space then to the WMS core cellular network on land which ultimately delivers the call, text or data session to the receiver on the other end.
WMS engineers not only design the network onboard the ships, they also design and manage the core network on land including capacity planning and traffic flow. The shipboard and core networks work together over satellite seamlessly keeping guests and crew connected.
Considering the design of a vessel - which can be 15+ decks and can expand over 300m in length - the materials used to build it, and the various environmental elements vessels sail in, there are many variables that impact the design of a maritime network. The WMS Engineering team is responsible for the design of the entire network which includes the cable layout, location of the DAS (Distributed Antenna System), and the structural design of the network components and how they coexist with ship’s existing technologies and the satellites. While creating a custom design, the engineers must always take into consideration several factors such as where the vessel will be located, number of passengers, demographics and the equipment vendors provide.
There are three primary challenges the team must address for every design. The first hurdle is equipment. When vendors manufacturer equipment, it is built with the terrestrial environment in mind. Equipment developed for use on land is built without the size limitations that exist on a ship. The engineering team must search for equipment with a smaller profile. In many cases, they may need to make modifications to the equipment so that is optimal for a vessel environment and remains mostly hidden from guest and crew members.
The second challenge that the engineers face is the satellite link orbiting the Earth used to send and receive communication traffic to and from ships at sea. Cruise ships typically use geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) systems, and orbit 35,786 kilometers (22,236 miles) above Earth's equator following the direction of Earth's rotation. The distance a communication signal needs to travel from the ship to space, and other factors like weather, need to be considered to reduce performance issues such as delay (called “latency”) and data loss. The team optimizes the satellite connection that enables a stronger connection with minimal latency. Without any modifications by the engineering team, there would be significant latency and poor call quality.
The third challenge the team must address is the vessel, specifically the layout of the vessel and the materials used to build it. Network components are designed for terrestrial buildings such as a stadium or hotel. In a hotel, the network signal must travel vertically with significantly less interference from the building. On a cruise or cargo ship, metal is used throughout the vessel which causes more signal loss and reflection which in turn impacts network performance. The network must be designed so that there is continuous connectivity whether the signal is traveling to the lowest deck to enable crew members to place a call, mid deck so that guests can text from their stateroom or on the top deck so the captain can send an e-mail from the bridge.
The Wireless Maritime Services Engineer
WMS Engineers wear two hats: design and operations. They are not a standard operations team; they are project focused and spend a large amount of their time designing and innovating in addition to their critical responsibilities that must be performed daily. When asked how the team manages to successfully execute such a complex list of responsibilities WMS Director of Engineering Mobility, Manuel Naranjo said “One of the biggest strengths of the WMS engineers is their ability to adapt to the constant changes in this unique market and the capacity to figure out solutions to complex issues.”
A WMS engineer’s day begins by meeting with the Network Management Center (NMC) and Shipboard Operations teams to discuss any urgent matters that may have occurred during the night shift. Once those issues are assigned and the tickets have been closed out, the team performs a daily network performance analysis and systems optimization check across all technologies to ensure that the network is operating efficiently and effectively. As vessels move from country to country, it is important to check systems daily due to the constant environmental changes. Upon completion of their daily operations responsibilities, the team switches hats and moves into their design responsibilities. Engineering dedicates a considerable amount of time researching ways to incorporate new technologies, develop and improve network design and hardening the network to be future proof, durable and maximize uptime for service availability.
Director of Engineering IP Core, Allan Lindo touches on the extensive training, education and skills WMS Engineers are required to have saying, “A WMS engineer must be a problem-solver who is nimble, tech savvy, analytical and creative with excellent communication skills.” Team members must be creative and bold to try new technologies and push boundaries of innovation. A person who has a natural curiosity that drives a hunger for knowledge will be successful in this role. WMS President & CEO Pramod Arora summarizes the team's ability to execute flawlessly by stating “RF engineering is complex to begin with, with different combinations of constantly moving parts making it necessary to fine tune the network to make sure the end user experience is optimal, and making it work well in a cruise ship environment adds many levels to that complexity. I take pride in the ability and energy of our engineering team to manage this challenge, and they have proven to be the best in the industry over the past several years as we evolved our network from the earlier technology cycles.”
Wireless Maritime Services (WMS) provides connectivity solutions at sea including cellular, Wi-Fi and IoT. The team responsible for remotely managing wireless networks on board cruise and container ships is our Network Management Center (NMC). The NMC are the first responders for WMS when network issues or outages occur with a mission to restore critical communication keeping people, data and things connected at sea and maintaining our best-in-class network uptime.
The First Responders of WMS
Every single day of the year the WMS NMC monitors 170+ vessels around the world at sea. To adequately manage so many vessels in various time zones, the team rotates three shifts in a 24-hour period. The NMC network engineer’s area of responsibility expands far beyond providing basic support and includes deep technical knowledge of end-to-end mobile connectivity in a maritime environment. Because of this in-depth knowledge, the members of the NMC team independently resolve complex technical issues maintaining our best-in-class network uptime and customer satisfaction.
The team's priority is to handle critical faults; the NMC are Tier 1 engineers when a fault is identified. With their in-depth knowledge and expertise of maritime networks, the team may consult with Tier 2 engineers throughout the life of a fault until the issue is resolved. Using this methodology, the NMC Tier 1 engineer continues to learn advanced skills which improves response time and ultimately further improves network uptime.
Not Your Typical Day
As the first responders of WMS, a typical day begins with a team huddle to communicate open issues. This is a critical step in maintaining service continuity for incoming team members. A network health check is performed to further isolate any undetected issues. If anything is detected the team investigates and analyzes the issue and provides details to Tier 2 for resolution. During a shift, the team collaborates with internal and external customers to discuss reports, issues or ad hoc projects. Unlike other operations centers, at the NMC all shifts have critical work to conduct in addition to monitoring the WMS fleet around the world. Since ships are dispersed across all time zones there are no shifts that have a lighter workload compared to others.
Network issues can range from something as simple as a single component fault to a complete network outage. As faults are identified, the NMC Engineer investigates to see if it can be solved remotely and independently. When needed, the NMC will contact the ship's onboard point of contact to assist; it is not uncommon for the NMC to report an issue before the vessel team is even aware of a fault.
Many critical issues are satellite related, causing all systems to be offline when the connection has failed. Outages are more common in the northern regions of the globe such as Alaska, Canada and Norway due to the geographical landscape. The satellite "look angle" is significantly less in these areas, thus large glaciers and mountains block the satellite signal to a ship because of the curvature of the earth. When a high priority fault comes in for an outage, the NMC immediately notifies the vessel team and begins to work with them, internal WMS teams, and the satellite vendor to solve the issue.
Although there is nothing typical about the NMC’s daily workload, there are atypical days with critical issues that allow the team to put their skills and expertise to the test. The team must contend with the ever-changing maritime environment, ranging from environmental satellite interference to hurricanes. The team must consistently strategize and find innovative ways to continuously monitor networks under various environmental conditions.
The Traits of an NMC Engineer
It takes agililty, strategic thinking and diligent problem-solving skills to succeed as an NMC Engineer. They are excited to put their telecommunications and network experience to use in a field that allows them to exercise their theoretical knowledge and expand their skills with continued training. The exciting part of the job is being able to work with different network types, vendors, systems, technologies, maritime markets, use cases and protocols as well as collaborating with various departments. Because the NMC is the tip of the spear for WMS, and the team solves some of the most complex issues in maritime communication, NMC engineers are often promoted to other departments in the company. Having NMC engineers move to other technical teams increases trust, expectations and knowledge of the entire WMS operations team as we have insight into the demands of our cross-functional teams.
Linda Ryan, Director of the Network Management Center, summarized her view of the team saying "The NMC team is as diverse as the network with each individual contributing their specialized knowledge. We consider ourselves the first responders for WMS. We are the first ones to respond to any network fault, and our number one goal is to administer procedures with a sense of urgency to repair and restore the health of our network quickly." WMS President & CEO, Pramod Arora, commented on the critical importance of customer-facing teams, "A business is only as good as the front-line employees. I am proud to have the WMS Network Management Center as the first team our customers encounter when needed. They are a true differentiator for WMS."
Unmatched Network Uptime is Our Standard
The COVID-19 pandemic has proven communication and connectivity are vital necessities across the globe. The ability to stay connected with our families, teachers, grocery stores, friends and work have been essential during this crisis. Just as on land, maintaining connectivity at sea is equally vital. A vessel at sea is essentially a small self-sustaining floating city with complex communication needs without the open real estate that a small city provides. Amid the global pandemic, there are still thousands of crew members onboard cruise ships waiting to be repatriated; all of them need to stay connected with family and friends. When connectivity is lost at sea, it can isolate the ship from the rest of the world.
At WMS, we are proud that across our fleet of 170+ ships we maintain an unmatched core network uptime for our Cellular at Sea service. This ensures that connectivity is there when it matters, and less downtime means fewer headaches for our customers. Our brand is built on the promise of enabling digital transformation shaping the future of maritime by connecting people, data and things through a seamless network. We are successful in executing this promise due to our incredible WMS family including our Shipboard Operations (SBO) team that installs and maintains our network equipment deployed on ships at sea.
The Network Installation and Maintenance Process
Take into consideration the general design and build of a ship. It has a steel hull and steel walls with multiple decks and unique spaces within the ship. Networks must be designed and installed so that connectivity is provided for everyone from the officer on the bridge, to the guest in their mid-deck cabin to the stage manager of the Broadway style show on the lower deck. The onboard network must provide exceptional connectivity even with these unique design considerations.
A WMS maritime network is comprised of telecommunications hardware and software platforms, satellites, antennae, and miles of cable all custom-designed for each vessel. The signal must propagate the interior of the ship (including bulkheads and firewalls). The network equipment must be reliable, weatherproof, and hidden so that it is not visible to guests. Installations on container ships are quicker, but still requires hauling equipment by hand up several decks to the uppermost deck where the equipment is installed.
Shipboard Operations (SBO) is the field and operations team that builds, installs, tests and updates the networks on cruise and cargo ships. It is no easy task installing a maritime network onboard a vessel that can be well over 300 meters long, 15+ deck highs for 7,000+ guests and crew members. SBO Field Engineers require mental focus, physical strength, and endurance to get the job done. These team members experience long hours installing the equipment, midnight testing and many nights away from family. The SBO Field Engineer is like a lone soldier in the field travelling across the globe to the front line hauling 150 pounds of tools, computers and personal luggage.
For network installations on newly constructed cruise ships, work begins in the shipyard. The network equipment for the vessel is shipped to the shipyard and typically consists of at least 5 pallets of equipment. On average there is usually one SBO Field Engineer that completes the entire network installation in a few weeks not including the cabling and Distributed Antenna System (DAS) which can take months.
Once installation of equipment is complete, the engineer must fully test the network. Testing includes checking and cleaning equipment, analyzing signal strength and checking for call quality. Upon completion of all testing, they educate the technical officers on board about the network installation, equipment and support, close out the ticket and travel on to the next job.
Achieving Excellence Is Not Easy
The Shipboard Operations team consistency ranks among the highest within WMS for customer satisfaction scores measured across all operating units. This incredible accomplishment is summarized by Chris Barger, Director of Shipboard Operations and Logistics "Our success is a combination of many things including constant communication with our customers, detailed analysis of issues, support from leadership and strong collaboration among our WMS team. We are here for our customers."
Pramod Arora, President and CEO, Wireless Maritime Services (WMS)
In 2019, WMS celebrated a 15-year anniversary, set an all-time-high in the number of ships deployed with our service, scaled the deployment of our 4G LTE service on cruise ships, and commercially launched a brand-new Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) solution in the commercial shipping market. Our team was excited to start 2020 on a high note, with many strategic milestones planned and in sight for the organization. Obviously, the landscape changed in late first quarter, and the challenges kept mounting up. Even when we saw the initial concerns coming out of Asia related to COVID-19 and its impact on our industry, we did not anticipate the length and scale of disruption eventually caused by the pandemic. None of our models predicted a 100% of cruise ships suspending operations for more than a quarter, something that has never ever happened in the cruise industry. Commercial shipping has fared better with 9% reduction in container shipping capacity, but the tactical constraints on activity and uncertainty about near and mid-term future has slowed down progress on many initiatives.
Safety is priority #1
The safety and care of our WMS employees is our top priority; it always has been. To meet the unique demand of our business we have developed COVID-19 procedures for both in-office and remote locations such as ports and ships. All employees are working remotely, and we are communicating with each other at all levels to maintain flow of information and decisions using connectivity tools on a scale we have never experienced before. We acted in a timely fashion, even before various government and health agencies came up with their recommendations and mandates. We thinned out our workforce coming into office locations, eventually going to 100% remote work, asked our employees who had been traveling to self-quarantine upon their return, all before this became a widely adopted practice. We communicated regularly and consistently about the need to use good judgement in day to day activities and have been able to prevent any COVID-19 incidences in the WMS family. We plan to continue to refine our design and processes around office activities as well as in the field to ensure that we keep our employees and everyone they come in contact with safe at all times. Our head of network and operations, Ian McGhie said it best, “We are operating to minimize risk for our team. They should feel safer visiting a ship than a grocery store.”
We are in this together
When faced with crises such as this pandemic, we all fare best when we work together; lend a helping hand when we can and ask for help when we need. We have tried, and will continue, to do our part. Our industry has been hit harder than many others, and opportunities to help each other present themselves constantly. It is common knowledge that tens of thousands of crew members are stuck on their quest to get to their home countries, while maneuvering complex logistical and regulatory issues. On ships where WMS provides Wi-Fi connectivity, we have done that free of charge since the start of the pandemic to help our cruise line customers as well as their crew members. We have kept our cellular network up and running to keep the communication lines open on our cruise ships as they move around the world on different quests, either to take crew members home, or to various locations to maintain and prepare them for post COVID world. We are doing our part to continue to pay our small business suppliers that depend on continued work for their livelihood, such as janitorial services, as we are aware that they are the hardest hit in this crisis. At the same time, I would like to personally thank some of our cruise line customers who have helped us with flexible payment terms so we can improve our liquidity in the short term. Times like these show us who our friends are. We will not forget this gesture.
Re-deploying resources. Re-emerging stronger.
Second quarter of 2020 has been unlike any other time in our company’s 15-year history, certainly the most challenging time in my 7 years at the helm of WMS. However, I believe in the resilience of our business, that of the cruise industry and while we have taken measures to contain costs and maintain our liquidity, we are also utilizing our resources to be prepared for the eventual resumption of our industry and to ensure that our products and capabilities are slated to add even more value to our users in the post COVID environment.
We have redeployed our resources around different activities to improve processes and upgrade our core network, also utilizing this time to modify our technical documentation which in-turn will streamline our existing processes and make our frontline employees more efficient. Our teams have continued their work on new product development as well as working on improving our current product portfolio to make it more attractive and affordable to the end users as we ramp up our business in the second half of the year, in what most experts believe will be a challenging macro-economic environment for a substantial portion of consumer and enterprise segments. We are in the business of connecting people, and if there’s one thing that has continued to shine brightly during the darkness of this pandemic, it is the human connection; it was the way we found our way back to the simplicity of calling each other, talking to each other, and ironically we found our way back to really being there for each other during a time when we physically couldn’t touch each other.
We are now focusing on things that enable us to continue delivering our brand promise to enable digital transformation shaping the future of maritime by connecting people, data and things through a seamless wireless network. We are adapting to the challenges we face today and designing toward the future with determination and resilience. We are committed to our employees, customers, partners and stakeholders in anticipation of smoother sailing ahead.
As the container shipping and ocean cruising industries face unprecedented challenges due to COVID-19, the pandemic has heightened the need for technology providing visibility, real-time information, digitization and remote connectivity at sea.
The current global pandemic is dramatically impacting the maritime market including maritime shipping and ocean cruising. The cruise industry is currently on pause with 100% of the ocean fleet out of service with plans to slowly resume operations in the coming months, while 9% of container shipping fleets are inactive. Across these two industries thousands of maritime professionals are on furlough. Due to the slowdown, many carriers and industry suppliers are facing real liquidity issues. The conditions are tough for sure. From an outsider perspective it may be difficult to recognize what happens at sea matters in our daily lives. Both shipping and cruising are vital to sustain us and to finding respite respectively. As the pandemic progresses and eventually passes, there is growing evidence and discussion that wireless technology solutions will enable the maritime market to become more efficient, profitable and safer operators at sea.
Transportation at Sea is a Global Concern
Simply stated, a significant portion of what any given country produces, including industrial and household goods, raw materials, food and medicines, is dependent on the sea for transportation. Overall, total export products are estimated at $19.347 trillion USD as of 2018. Global trade exports worldwide on average represents 45% of worldwide Gross Domestic Product (GDP) with 90% of goods produced transported on a ship, barge or boat. The global maritime shipping industry is vital to sustain us daily.
Top Global Export Countries (2018 Export Sales $Millions USD)
Cruising is also important as a unique vacation experience enabling people to see the world by sea. Cruise lines carried 30 million passengers around the world last year equivalent to the total number of annual visitors to either Japan, Austria or Greece (30 million annual visitors each year). This global industry contributes $150 billion USD ($50 billion USD in wages and salaries) to the world economy annually on close to 300 ocean ships. Cruisers are also loyal, with 82% likely to book a cruise again as their next vacation.
Global Ocean Cruise Passengers (In Millions)
Combined, the container shipping and cruise industry supports over 5 million jobs worldwide. What happens at sea matters and how the maritime industry responds to the COVD-19 crisis now, in the coming months and years ahead will have global ramifications.
The Digital Recovery from COVID-19
For both the maritime shipping and cruise industries their continued success will depend on how they manage their fleet capacity going forward. Currently container shipping capacity is down 9% while the ocean cruise capacity is completely out of service for now.
Inactive Container and Cruise Fleet Capacity as of April 2020
From a cruise perspective, managing capacity is equally critical for success moving forward. Unlike maritime container shipping, 100% of the worldwide cruise fleet is not carrying passengers nor generating revenue. Cruise lines, vendors, port operators and destination location business that rely on cruising for their livelihood have faith in the resiliency of the industry and are working together through the crisis. For example, WMS is providing Wi-Fi services at no cost, out of goodwill, for affected passengers and crew members on cruise ships. Some crew members that are having a difficult time getting repatriated to their home country are calling these ships home for now and staying connected is equally important at sea as on land during this pandemic.
Our support of the maritime market is steadfast as we continue to maintain our network assets on land and sea. It’s clear that connectivity solutions like cellular, Wi-Fi and Internet of Things (IoT) will help companies in the maritime industry perform operations more safely and efficiently as cost-control will be important for both container and cruise lines. We also believe remote connectivity will enable workers on container ships and passengers on cruise ships to perform tasks digitally to minimize physical contact and maintain social distancing. As a leader in maritime communications for over 15 years, we are here to help.